Parent and Patient Information System - ESPU

Chapter 1 - Urinary Tract Infection - a common problem in children 3
1 Diagnosis 4
2 Treatment 5
Chapter 2 - Hydrocele, Hernia and Undescended Testis 7
1 Hydrocele and hernia 7
2 Undescended testis 9
Chapter 3 - Testicular torsion - a serious cause of scrotal pain 11
1 About Testicular Torsion 11
2 Causes 11
3 Symptoms 12
4 Diagnosis 12
5 Treatment 13
6 Don't Ignore Symptoms 15
Chapter 4 - Diagnotic Tools Used in Pediatric Urology 16
1 Laboratory tests 16
1.1 Urinalysis 16
1.2 Urine culture 17
1.3 Kidney function tests 17
2 Imaging modalities 18
2.1 Plain abdominal X-ray graphy 18
2.2 Intravenous urography (IVU) 18
2.3 Ultrasonography 19
2.4 Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) 19
2.4.1 Preparing the child for the test 20
2.4.2 Performing the test 20
2.4.3 Concerns 21
2.5 Computerized tomography (CT) 21
2.6 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 22
2.7 Scintigraphic studies 23
2.7.1 Static renal scintigraphy 23
2.7.2 Dynamic renal scintigraphy 24
2.8 Uroflowmetry and Urodynamic study 25
2.8.1 Uroflowmetry 25
2.8.2 Urodynamic study 25
Chapter 5 - Structure, Development and Function Of Urinary System 27
1 What is the urinary system 27
2 How is urine produced? 27
3 How does the urinary system function? 27
4 How did the urinary system develop? 29
Chapter 6 - Ultrasound - a noninvasive diagnostic tool 31
Chapter 7 - Penile Problems 33
1 Circumcision 33
2 Phimosis 34
3 Paraphimosis 35
4 Hypospadias 35
5 Micropenis 36
Chapter 8 - A Child´s Kidneys and Urinary Tract 38
1 Problems of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract 40
Chapter 9 - Bedwetting (Enuresis) 43
1 What is bedwetting? 43
2 What can cause bedwetting? 43
3 When should it be treated? 43
4 How do we treat enuresis? 44
5 Where can I get advice and help? 44
Chapter 10 - Bladder problems/daytime incontinence 45
1 What are the symptoms of bladder problems? 45
2 What causes these symptoms? 45
3 How are bladder problems treated? 46
3.1 Bladder training 47
3.2 Medication 47
3.3 Biofeedback 47
4 Further information advice? 48
Chapter 11 - Constipation 49
1 What is constipation? 49
2 What can cause constipation? 49
3 What are the signs of constipation? 49
4 How do you treat the constipation? 50
5 Where can I get further advice? 51
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