History Session - 2016 Meeting, Harrogate, UK

ESPU Meeting on Wednesday 22, June 2016, 17:15 - 18:40

17:15 - 17:20
Opening remarks
S.N. Cenk Buyukunal
Tony Manzoni (President of ESPU)

17:20 - 18:05
Panel - Memories and contributions from DI and HJ: Story of two giants
Participants: DFM Thomas, Ken Glassberg, David Diamond, Rick Hurwitz, Philip Ransley, Robert Whitaker, Christopher Woodhouse

18:05 - 18:25
SH-1 (OP)


University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM

I was the second President of the ESPU, after Rolf Scholtmeijer. A great honour. I trained in London and the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore where there was concern as to who should operate on children with Wilms' tumours. In the UK the criteria became based not on who should do the surgery but who had the best 5 year survival rates.

In Germany Trendelenberg wrote a seminal paper on exstrophy in 1906. Meredith Campbell in the USA had published his textbook and had become the first President of the American Society of Pediatric Urology. Whilst in the UK there were adult urologists with an interest in paediatric urology, but the Sea-change came with the appointment in 1952 of David Innes Williams to the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond St (GOS). In 1951 he helped Twistington Higgins and Ellison Nash in compiling the first edition of "Urology of Childhood". The book was a unique experience and rapidly became the "bible" for decades of aspiring paediatric urologists.

With the introduction of intravenous urography (IVU), and micturating cystourethrography (MCUG) many previously unexplored conditions appeared. The most worrying and dangerous of these was the boy with posterior urethral valves. Survival improved with the realisation that early drainage of urine by ureterostomy, vesicostomy or nephrostomy and the acknowledgement that urinary infection must be avoided or adequately treated. As important as surgical intervention was the role that medical management.

The management of urinary infection in children was controversial and the use of micturating cystography was discovering vast numbers of children with vesicoureteric reflux. Operations were devised to correct reflux but some of the early procedures were not always successful and this led to some important trials of medical treatment with long-term antibiotics. These allowed observations of spontaneous cessation of the reflux which subsequently had a major influence on our indications for surgical intervention. Breakthroughs were the design by Joe Cohen of a ureteric reimplant that was uncomplicated and highly successful. Further understanding was enabled by the outstanding research of Ransley and Risdon which clarified the relationship between intrarenal reflux and "pylonephritic" scarring of the kidney.

David Innes Williams in 1958 visited the USA and following this a series of many American trainees came to work with him. These visitors became leaders in paediatric urology throughout the USA and beyond. Williams retired in 1978 and Philip Ransley followed him taking this leading department onwards and upwards. Philip retired in 2004 but continues as a leading figure. A further milestone was the appointment of Herbert Johnston in Liverpool who advanced our speciality to a greater level.

Now we have specific paediatric urological training programmes in the UK. These developed from an annual paediatric urological course held in Cambridge annually for 25 years and the formation of the British Association of Paediatric Urology (BAPU) which has nurtured and guided the specialty over more than 25 years.

This short history is completed by mentioning the development of adolescent urology by the main protagonist in the UK - Christopher Woodhouse. The smooth transition for children from designated children's hospitals to teenage care was an enormous step forwards.

The final accolade to David Innes Williams is that he initiated the Society for Paediatric Urological Surgeons (SPUS) which grew to be an international group of the most respected leaders in the field of paediatric urology.

18:25 - 18:40
SH-2 (OP)


Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY

In early ages, children were not seen in portraits with their proper body shapes and anatomy.Especially in middle ages,they were depicted as small creatures, devils, angels etc.
After Roenesans, it was possible to see normal-looking children with their proper body shapes,proportions and normal looking anatomy.

In this study, various portraits,from different centuries, related with children and different sections from the lives of children world, painted by famous artists will be presented.In addition to the masterpieces from Western World,child miniatures reflacting the World of Children in Ottoman Empire will also be presented.

According to the results of our study,"presence of child figures in various branches of art" was seemed to be strongly related with the development of "children rights" and "improved regulations related with child health."